The Coimbra Ophthalmology Reading Centre (CORC) focus its activities in grading mainly retinal diseases on fundus images and OCT images of the retina, as well as functional evaluations of the retina using mfERG and visual fields.

  • Development of study-specific Acquisition Protocols
  • Technicians training and certification
  • Equipment certification
  • Web-based platform for exams’ submission
  • Development of study-specific Grading Protocols
  • Grading of ophthalmic exams (retinal fundus images, OCT, mfERG and visual fields) by trained graders for characterization and quantification of ophthalmic disease
  • Eligibility review services
  • Management and monitoring of exams received and results
  • Provides data backup procedures and a disaster recovery plan
  • Provides secure long-term archiving of study materials, both digital and hardcopy

CORC serves as central Reading Centre for a series of multinational/multicentric clinical studies, mainly in Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) and Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD).
CORC is also the central Reading Centre for the Diabetic Retinopathy Screening Programme of the Central Region of Portugal since 2011.


CORC has a secure custom-designed web based tool to transmit images between Clinical Sites and CORC. This system is hosted in the AIBILI´s Data Centre .

For grading purposes CORC uses licensed software from the equipment suppliers, such as Cirrus HD-OCT (Carl Zeiss Meditec), Heidelberg Eye Explorer (Heidelberg Engineering), Topcon 3D-OCT (Topcon Coorporation), etc.

For research purposes CORC also has novel software programmes, developed in-house, to reliably quantify neovascularization of the retina and leakage, assess microaneurysm turnover in diabetic patients (RetmarkerDR®), classify and quantify AMD lesions and disease activity in patients with AMD (RetmarkerAMD® Research) and perform segmentation of the retinal layers on OCT.

Summary – Main Grading Activities

Diabetic Retinopathy (DR)

  • CFP: ETDRS/DR Grading; Automated microaneurysm assessment (RetmarkerDR®); Screening DR
  • CFP/FA: Classification/quantification of DR characteristics, including proliferative DR and diabetic macular edema; High-risk Proliferative DR assessment; Quantification of neovascularization, capillary closure and leakage
  • OCT: Retinal Thickness; Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness; Ganglion Cell Layer Thickness; Presence and location of key features for DR; Segmentation analysis of the retinal layers; Quantification of cysts
  • mfERG: Amplitude/Implicit time of P1 & Z-score analysis

Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

  • CFP/FA/ICG/FAF: Classification/quantification of ARM/AMD lesions (RetmarkerAMD Research); Classification/quantification of Polipoydal Choroidal Vasculopathy / AMD characteristics
  • OCT: Retinal Thickness; Presence and location of key features for AMD

Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP)

  • CFP/VF/OCT/FAF: Retinal Thickness and total volume; Presence and location of key features for RP; Area of functioning retina


(CFP – Color Fundus Photography; FA – Fluorescein Angiography; FAF – Fundus Autofluorescence; ICG – Indocyanine Green Angiography; mfERG – multifocal Electroretinography; OCT – Optical Coherence Tomography; VF – Visual Fields)

  • Director

    Conceição Lobo

  • Coordinator

    Catarina Neves

  • Study Coordinator

    Ana Raquel Branco

    Cláudio Mendes Ferreira

    Lara Portugal

    Márcia Ferreira

    Mariana Sofia Costa

    Renata Castanheira

    Sofia Gomes

  • Medical Grader

    Cláudia Farinha

    Conceição Lobo

    Emmanuel Neves

    Inês Pereira Marques

    Isa Sobral

    Isabel Pires

    João Pedro Marques

    João Quadrado Gil

    Jorge Simão

    José Costa

    José Cunha-Vaz

    Marco Marques

    Maria Luz Cachulo

    Pedro Pereira

  • Orthoptist Grader

    Alda Baltar

    Ana Rita Santos

    Marta Lopes

    Sílvia Simão

  • Technical Grader

    Ana Paula Pascoal

    Catarina Neves

    Christian Schwartz

    Cláudio Mendes Ferreira

    Mariana Sofia Costa

    Rui Castro Pita

    Telmo Miranda

  • Clients

    ‣ ARSC - Regional Health Administration of the Centre Region of Portugal

    ‣ Bayer

    ‣ - European Vision Institute Clinical Research Network

    ‣ Gensight Biologics

    ‣ Novartis

    ‣ Syneos Health, INC Research

    ‣ ThromboGenics

  • Partners

    ‣ Carl Zeiss

    ‣ ICON Clinical Research